Welcome to the Alliance Medical Foundation Trust Blog

Welcome to the Alliance Medical Foundation Trust Blog

The intent of this blog is to keep our website audience www.amftrust.com up-to-date on information about Liver & Pancreas ,
information about our Humanitarian Mission and to answer some of our web site and training audience questions.
People are encouraged
to submit questions and post comments.

The only National charity that offers Free Medical Treatment support and advice for patients with all forms of Liver & Pancreatic Diseases.
The kindness of supporters like yourself, enables us to help people with liver & pancreatic disease.


Make a Donation...http://t.co/P7CjSMt

Friday, December 31, 2010

Racial Disparities Evident In Early-Stage Liver Cancer Survival

Alliance Medical Foundation Liver and Pancreatic Charitable Trust.
( Govt of India Reg )
We are the only National charity that offers Free Medical Treatment 
support and advice for patients with all forms of Liver & Pancreatic Diseases.
The kindness of supporters like yourself, enables us
to help people with liver & pancreatic disease.
 
 
About The Charity Visit : www.amftrust.com
 
Black patients with early-stage liver cancer appear more likely to die of the disease than Hispanic or white patients with the same condition, according to a report in the December issue of Archives of Surgery, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

Hepatocellular carcinoma, or cancer of the liver, is the fifth leading cause of cancer death worldwide, according to background information in the article. The five-year rate of survival for patients with advanced-stage disease is 5 percent, but those who are diagnosed at an early stage are more likely to be successfully treated. "The available treatment strategies, including tumor ablation, hepatic resection, liver transplant or combined modalities, require highly complex care only available in tertiary referral centers," the authors write. "To obtain care in these centers, patients need to overcome several barriers that may precipitate health care disparities along racial/ethnic lines and may have downstream effects on survival."

Amit K. Mathur, M.D., M.S., and colleagues at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, analyzed data from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) registry. They identified a total of 13,244 patients who were diagnosed with stage I or II hepatocellular carcinoma between 1995 and 2006.

Of the patients, 6,316 (47.7 percent) were white, 3,022 (22.8 percent) were Asian, 2,230 (16.8 percent) were Hispanic, 1,397 (10.5 percent) were black and 279 (2.1 percent) were categorized as other. During the study period, a total of 32.8 percent of all patients received invasive therapy for liver cancer. Black and Hispanic patients were less likely to receive such treatments than white, Asian or other patients.

Five-year survival rates were 17.9 percent for all patients, 18.2 percent for white patients, 12.2 percent for black patients, 15.2 percent for Hispanic patients, 22 percent for Asian patients and 17.1 percent for other patients. Median (midpoint) survival times were 15 months for Asians, 10 months for whites and Hispanics and eight months for blacks.

After adjusting for the type of treatment received, black patients had a 12 percent increased rate of death when compared with white patients, Hispanic and white patients had similar rates of death and Asian patients had a 16 percent lower death rate.

"The most notable finding in our study was that racial/ethnic variation in hepatocellular carcinoma outcome is related to access and variable treatment effect from specific therapies," the authors write. "After adjusting for treatment effects, the racial/ethnic disparity in survival between black and white patients decreased but persisted. This finding is linked to two major issues that contribute to health-related disparities in minority populations: black patients have poor access to treatment, and, even after obtaining treatment, they have relatively poor outcomes compared with white patients."

The results have important implications for health policy, they note. "Some evidence suggests that racial/ethnic disparities in access to specialized care may be linked to the providers and facilities that serve minority patients. Further provider education on the importance of hepatocellular carcinoma screening in at-risk groups may be helpful in alleviating these disparities," the authors conclude. "Persistent racial/ethnic disparities in survival even after adjusting for the effects of treatment are of particular concern and may be related to the quality of health care delivered. This variation may require a comprehensive evaluation of centers where minorities receive care to standardize and improve the structure and process of cancer care delivery."

Monday, December 6, 2010

New Study Calls for Greater Awareness of Food Supply for Children With Diabetes

Alliance Medical Foundation Liver and Pancreatic Charitable Trust.
( Govt of India Reg )
We are the only National charity that offers Free Medical Treatment 
support and advice for patients with all forms of Liver & Pancreatic Diseases.
The kindness of supporters like yourself, enables us
to help people with liver & pancreatic disease.
 
 
About The Charity Visit : www.amftrust.com
 
 

Managing diabetes in a child requires a careful balance of insulin, diet, and exercise. Buying essential medical supplies, such as needles and testing strips, adds a financial burden to families. According to a new study soon to be published in The Journal of Pediatrics, the resulting food insecurity that arises from the financial burden of diabetes management increases a child's risk of being hospitalized due to complications from diabetes.

According to study author Dr. Elizabeth Cummings, "A household is food secure when all members have access to food that is safe and varied enough to meet their nutritional needs. Families who are hungry, who use food banks or food stamps, or those who worry about affording food are considered food insecure."
Dr. Cummings and colleagues interviewed 183 Canadian families with at least one child with diabetes over a 16 month period. They completed a survey that assessed their food security, demographic information (e.g., income, education levels), and strategies used to mitigate the financial burden of their child's diabetes.
The researchers found that 22% of the families they interviewed were food insecure, a significantly higher percentage than the national Canadian rate of 9.2%. Food security is not just a problem in Canada, however. A report released by the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Economic Research Service states that 17.4 million households had difficulty providing enough food due to lack of resources in 2009.1 According to Dr. "Children from food insecure families had poorer diabetes control and were 3.7 times more likely to require hospitalization for diabetes within the past year."
Almost all the families interviewed received some financial support for their diabetes supplies. However, many reported that someone in the family ate less so that the child with diabetes would have enough. "A small number of families reported that they tested their child's blood sugar less often than recommended," co-author Dr. Stacey Marjerrison reports, "or used needles more than once to help manage the cost of their child's diabetes."
Dr.believes that health professions should be more aware of this issue. "A review of financial support available to families is needed," she asserts. "Improvement of support may result in fewer hospitalizations and thus lower health care costs."

Disclaimer: This article is not intended to provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Views expressed here do not necessarily reflect those of AMF Trust or Dr.Alacc

Anti-Microbials Are a Common Cause of Drug-Induced Liver Injury and Failure?

Alliance Medical Foundation Liver and Pancreatic Charitable Trust.
( Govt of India Reg )
We are the only National charity that offers Free Medical Treatment 
support and advice for patients with all forms of Liver & Pancreatic Diseases.
The kindness of supporters like yourself, enables us
to help people with liver & pancreatic disease.
 
 
About The Charity Visit : www.amftrust.com
 
 New research shows that anti-microbial medications are a common cause of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) leading to acute liver failure (ALF), with women and minorities disproportionately affected. While ALF evolves slowly, once it does occur a spontaneous recovery is unlikely; however liver transplantation offers an excellent survival rate. 

Full findings of this ten-year prospective study are published in the December issue of Hepatology, a journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.
Patients with liver failure resulting from DILI may experience deep jaundice, fluid retention, advanced coagulopathy and coma. More than 1100 drugs, herbal remedies, natural products, vitamins, minerals, dietary supplements, and recreational and illicit compounds are known to cause liver injury, which reportedly affect 1 in 100,000 to 1 in 10,000 patients. Prior research shows DILI is a frequent cause of hepatitis, and accounts for 5%-10% of hospitalizations for jaundice and 12% of all cases of ALF (excluding acetaminophen).
In the current study, researchers investigated liver injury and failure caused by drugs other than acetaminophen. Detailed case reports were collected from 1,198 subjects with ALF enrolled at 23 sites participating in the National Institutes of Health-funded Acute Liver Failure Study Group, led by Principal Investigator, William M. Lee, M.D., from the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas, TX. Researchers identified 133 patients with DILI with 71% of those cases in women.

"Our findings confirm prior medical evidence that found a high female predominance in DILI ALF, suggesting that women may be more susceptible to liver injury or use more prescription drugs than men," said Dr. Adrian Reuben, Professor of Medicine at the Medical University of South Carolina and lead study author.
Furthermore, the research team documented a disproportionately high number of minorities with DILI ALF, including African-American (16%), Hispanic (15%) and other minority groups (12%). "We observed inexplicably high numbers of minority patients with DILI ALF. This racial disparity is atypical for acetaminophen-induced ALF in the U.S. and further studies should explore this discrepancy," commented Dr. Reuben.

Researchers identified 61 different agents that, alone or in combination, could cause liver injury and failure in the study population. Anti-microbial agents were found to be the most common cause of DILI ALF cases and included anti-tuberculosis drugs (25), sulphur-containing drugs (12), nitrofurantoin (12), other antibiotics (7), antifungal agents (6), and anti-retroviral drugs (4). Patients who develop ALF after taking these drugs typically do not experience a spontaneous recovery -- the transplant-free survival rate in this study was 27%.
There were 56 eligible subjects who underwent liver transplantation of whom all but four survived, giving an overall survival for the entire cohort 66.2%. The authors highlight that the 23.3% of transplantation waitlist deaths attest to the urgent need for donor organs in this setting. "Liver transplantation offers excellent survival for ALF patients, however further investigation should include more detail on drug use duration, and the impact of alcohol use and diabetes, to provide additional understanding of idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury and failure," Dr. Reuben concluded.

Disclaimer: This article is not intended to provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Views expressed here do not necessarily reflect those of AMF Trust or Dr.Alacc

Thursday, December 2, 2010

Make A Donation Today...


My corresponding to you is to request for a generous donation for the Alliance Medical Foundation Liver & Pancreatic  Trust. www.amftrust.com 
We are running short of funds.

Any help from your side is welcome and will be thoroughly recognized by our society.

We are the only National charity that offers Free Medical Treatment support and advice for adults with all forms of Liver & Pancreatic Diseases. The kindness of supporters like yourself, enables us to help people with liver & pancreatic disease.

Also we assure you that your help will not be misused.


"To the World you might be one person,

But to one person you might be the world"
 
Only you can make a change 
 Make A Donation Today...
 
Alliance Medical Foundation,
A/C No: - SB 01003300
CORPORATION BANK, Thiruvalla
SWIFT CODE: - CORPINBB 485
RTGS IFSC CODE: - CORO 0000485


Other areas of charity operations

1.      Provide medical assistance

To provide treatment to poor and needy patients irrespective of their Irrespective of their Religion, Caste and Community or Locality  make them maximum self-dependent on health base.

2.      Scholarship to children of dependents

To provide educational assistance to their children during the course of treatment.

3.      Provide food, clothing and housing

To provide food clothing and shelter to the family members of the dependent if we can,
During the course of treatment.

4.      Conduct Medical camps

To conduct Medical Camps in different parts.


If you have any further inquiries please feel free to contact us.
Or you can also know more about our humanitarian work by visiting our website
 www.amftrust.com


Registered Office: 
Polachiriyil Building | Near Y.M.C.A |T.K Road
Thiruvalla | Pathanamthitta Dist. | Kerala | India |Pin : 689101
Tel : 91-469- 2604587, 2734342 |Res : 91-469-2618816
Mob : 9497812636, 9495509461, 9387121349 |
Fax : 91-469-2734342

TMC435 Works Well in Treatment-experienced Hepatitis C

Alliance Medical Foundation Liver and Pancreatic Charitable Trust.
( Govt of India Reg )
We are the only National charity that offers Free Medical Treatment 
support and advice for patients with all forms of Liver & Pancreatic Diseases.
The kindness of supporters like yourself, enables us
to help people with liver & pancreatic disease.
 
About The Charity Visit : www.amftrust.com

Medivir last week announced interim data from the Phase 2b ASPIRE trial, demonstrating that its investigational once-daily HCV protease inhibitor TMC435 (being developed jointly with Tibotec), when combined with pegyalted interferon plus ribavirin, increased the likelihood that treatment-experienced chronic hepatitis C patients would achieve undetectable HCV viral load at 4, 12, and 24 weeks, compared with standard therapy alone. Rates of undetectable HCV RNA at week 24 ranged from 78% for prior null responders to 94% for prior relapsers.

Sunday, November 28, 2010

Daily Checkup: Alcohol still risk, But ......main causes of cirrhosis ?

Alliance Medical Foundation Liver and Pancreatic Charitable Trust.
( Govt of India Reg )
We are the only National charity that offers Free Medical Treatment support
and advice for patients with all forms of Liver & Pancreatic Diseases.
The kindness of supporters like yourself, enables us
to help people with liver & pancreatic disease.

      About The Charity Visit : www.amftrust.com

Who’s at risk
“Fibrosis” is a term doctors use to describe the scarring of the liver that builds up over time as the result of liver damage. “Over many years, that scarring progresses and culminates in cirrhosis, which refers to an end-stage fibrosis,”. “By then, the blood flow through the liver is impaired, and liver function may be compromised.”

A healthy liver has many vital functions, like detoxifying the blood, synthesizing critical proteins and hormones, fighting off infection and metabolizing sugars, fats and proteins.
Advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis are major public-health concerns that dramatically increase your chance of developing liver cancer.

“Liver cancer is the fastest-rising cancer in the U.S. and the third-leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide,”. “The bulk of patients with cirrhosis in this country have it from hepatitis B or C − about 5.3 million Americans are living with chronic viral hepatitis.”

The second-leading cause of fibrosis is called “fatty liver disease,” in which fat accumulates in the liver and eventually leads to scarring. “Obese patients often overlook the risk of liver damage,” . “Obesity often goes hand in hand with metabolic syndrome, which is associated with elevated blood lipids and blood pressure, insulin resistance and pro-thrombotic and an inflammatory state.” Fatty liver disease often improves after weight-loss regimens like bariatric surgery.

The underlying cause for fibrosis can also be alcohol abuse or rarer conditions like autoimmune diseases of the liver. “Alcohol abuse is definitely a risk factor, but the vast majority of patients with fibrosis and cirrhosis don’t abuse alcohol. The old association linking cirrhosis solely with alcohol abuse no longer holds true now that viral hepatitis and fatty liver disease are the two primary causes of fibrosis and cirrhosis.

Signs and symptoms
One of the challenges of diagnosing and treating liver disease is that it most often develops stealthily.

“The liver is so resilient that it can compensate for years of disease, and the patient may have no symptoms until the disease is very progressed,”. “In reality, many patients have advanced fibrosis but have no symptoms.”

The very late manifestation of symptoms means that it is even more important to identify if people are at risk and screen them to catch the disease early.

“People at high risk of liver disease include Asian immigrants, who are more prone to hepatitis B, and patients with evidence of metabolic syndrome, who are at high risk of fatty liver disease,”. Other risk factors for hepatitis include people who got blood transfusions before 1990 and people who engage in high-risk behavior like needle-sharing. Alcohol abuse is still a risk factor, even if it is no longer the most common underlying cause.

New evidence shows that simple blood tests can do an excellent job of identifying a patient’s risk of liver disease. “We screen for ALT − alanine aminotransferase − an enzyme that enters the bloodstream if the liver is damaged,” . “An elevated ALT level without explanation merits followup.”

Traditional treatment

“We have no treatments approved to attack the scarring in the liver yet,” . “But we have some excellent treatments for the underlying diseases.”

There are effective medical therapies for hepatitis B and C. “For hepatitis B, the main drugs are molecules that block the multiplication of the virus,” “The hepatitis C treatments are a combination of the drugs interferon and an immunomodulatory drug called ribavarin, which together boost the immune system to fight the virus.”

New drugs that attack the hepatitis C virus directly are expected to be available next year. For patients with fatty liver disease, weight-loss regimens also reduce liver damage. “Anything from diet and exercise and medications to bariatric surgery can have great results,” .

If alcohol abuse is the underlying cause, patients are usually required to enroll in a 12-step rehab program.

Once the liver disease progresses to the point of impairing liver function, doctors treat the resulting symptoms. “We try to treat all the liver problems and screen for liver cancer,” “For select patients, liver transplantation may be necessary.”

But doctors hope they can help more patients control their liver damage before it gets to that point. “There is now evidence that if we treat the underlying liver disease, even cirrhosis is reversible,”.

Doctors are making liver disease an increasingly
manageable illness through prevention, early detection and the treatment of fibrosis before it progresses too far.

Research breakthroughs
Some of the most exciting liver disease research is being done at the molecular level.

In 1985, Friedman identified the cell type that’s responsible for the formation of scarring tissue.

“Basically, we’ve gone from uncovering [what] causes scar formation to soon being able to treat and prevent fibrosis with medication,”  “Our hope is that if we develop new treatments for fibrosis, we’ll be able to prevent the development of cirrhosis.”

Questions for your doctor
Hepatitis is a major public health risk, so be proactive about asking your doctor, “Am I at risk of hepatitis?”

Follow up with, “Should I be vaccinated for hepatitis A and B?” Another good question is, “Do I have any risk factors for liver disease?” and “Is my ALT elevated?”


What you can do

Know your risk level.
That means knowing the risk factors of liver disease — especially hepatitis and fatty liver disease — and knowing your ALT level. “If your ALT level is abnormal on even one reading, you should have it followed up,” 

  • See a specialist.
    “If there’s evidence of chronic liver disease based on virus or blood tests, see a liver specialist,” 



  • Support liver disease research. Alliance Medical Foundation www.amftrust.com







  • Friday, November 26, 2010

    Minimally Invasive Liver and Pancreas Surgery

    Do Your Liver Function Tests 2day!!!

    Alliance Medical Foundation Liver and Pancreatic Charitable Trust.
    ( Govt of India Reg )
    We are the only National charity that offers Free Medical Treatment support
    and advice for patients with all forms of Liver & Pancreatic Diseases.
    The kindness of supporters like yourself, enables us
    to help people with liver & pancreatic disease.

          About The Charity Visit : www.amftrust.com
    Liver function tests (LFTs or LFs), which include liver enzymes are groups of laboratory blood assays designed to give information about the state of a patient's liver. Most liver diseases cause only mild symptoms initially, but it is vital that these diseases be detected early. Hepatic (liver) involvement in some diseases can be of crucial importance. This testing is performed by a medical technologist on a patient's serum or plasmaphlebotomy. Some tests are associated with functionality (e.g., albumin); some with cellular integrity (e.g., transaminase) and some with conditions linked to the biliary tract (gamma-glutamyl transferase and alkaline phosphatase). Several biochemical tests are useful in the evaluation and management of patients with hepatic dysfunction. These tests can be used to 
    (1) detect the presence of liver disease, 
    (2) distinguish among different types of liver disorders, 
    (3) gauge the extent of known liver damage, and 
    (4) follow the response to treatment. 
    Some or all of these measurements are also carried out (usually about two times a year for routine cases) on those individuals taking certain medications- anticonvulsants are a notable example- in order to ensure that the medications are not damaging the person's liver. 

    liver panel

    Albumin (Alb) - 3.9 to 5.0 g/dL

    Alanine transaminase (ALT) - 9 to 60 IU/L

    Aspartate transaminase (AST) - 10 to 40 IU/L

    Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) - 30 to 120 IU/L

    Total bilirubin (TBIL) - 0.2–1.2 mg/dL

    Direct bilirubin (Conjugated Bilirubin) - 0–0.3 mg/dL

    Gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) - 0 to 51 IU/L

     

    Other tests commonly requested alongside LFTs

    5' nucleotidase (5'NTD)

    Coagulation test (e.g. INR)

    Serum glucose (BG, Glu)

    Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)


    Wednesday, November 17, 2010

    Hepatitis B

    Alliance Medical Foundation Liver and Pancreatic Charitable Trust.
    ( Govt of India Reg )
     
    We are the only National charity that offers Free Medical Treatment support
    and advice for patients with all forms of Liver & Pancreatic Diseases.
    The kindness of supporters like yourself, enables us
    to help people with liver & pancreatic disease.

          About The Charity Visit : www.amftrust.com
    Hepatitis B 


    is an infectious illness caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) which infects the liver of hominoidea, including humans, and causes an inflammation called hepatitis. Originally known as "serum hepatitis", the disease has caused epidemics in parts of Asia and Africa, and it is endemic in China. About a third of the world's population, more than 2 billion people, have been infected with the hepatitis B virus.This includes 350 million chronic carriers of the virus.Transmission of hepatitis B virus results from exposure to infectious blood or body fluids.
    The acute illness causes liver inflammation, vomiting, jaundice and rarely, death. Chronic hepatitis B may eventually cause liver cirrhosis and liver cancer—a fatal disease with very poor response to current chemotherapy. The infection is preventable by vaccination.
    Hepatitis B virus is an hepadnavirushepa from hepatotrophic and dna because it is a DNA virus—and it has a circular genome composed of partially double-stranded DNA. The viruses replicate through an RNAretroviruses.Although replication takes place in the liver, the virus spreads to the blood where virus-specific proteins and their corresponding antibodies are found in infected people. Blood tests for these proteins and antibodies are used to diagnose the infection intermediate form by reverse transcription, and in this respect they are similar to

    Signs and symptoms

    Acute infection with hepatitis B virus is associated with acute viral hepatitis – an illness that begins with general ill-health, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, body aches, mild fever, dark urine, and then progresses to development of jaundice. It has been noted that itchy skin has been an indication as a possible symptom of all hepatitis virus types. The illness lasts for a few weeks and then gradually improves in most affected people. A few patients may have more severe liver disease (fulminant hepatic failure), and may die as a result of it. The infection may be entirely asymptomatic and may go unrecognized.
    Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus may be either asymptomatic or may be associated with a chronic inflammation of the liver (chronic hepatitis), leading to cirrhosis over a period of several years. This type of infection dramatically increases the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (liver cancer). Chronic carriers are encouraged to avoid consuming alcohol as it increases their risk for cirrhosis and liver cancer. Hepatitis B virus has been linked to the development of Membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN)

    Diagnosis

    The tests, called assays, for detection of hepatitis B virus infection involve serum or blood tests that detect either viral antigens (proteins produced by the virus) or antibodies produced by the host. Interpretation of these assays is complex.

    Treatment

    Acute hepatitis B infection does not usually require treatment because most adults clear the infection spontaneously.Early antiviral treatment may only be required in fewer than 1% of patients, whose infection takes a very aggressive course (fulminant hepatitis) or who are immunocompromised. On the other hand, treatment of chronic infection may be necessary to reduce the risk of cirrhosis and liver cancer. Chronically infected individuals with persistently elevated serum alanine aminotransferase, a marker of liver damage, and HBV DNA levels are candidates for therapy.
    Although none of the available drugs can clear the infection, they can stop the virus from replicating, thus minimizing liver damage. Currently, there are seven medications licensed for treatment of hepatitis B infection in the United States. These include antiviral drugs lamivudine (Epivir), adefovir (Hepsera), tenofovir (Viread), telbivudine (Tyzeka) and entecavir (Baraclude) and the two immune system modulators interferon alpha-2aPEGylated interferon alpha-2a (Pegasys). The use of interferon, which requires injections daily or thrice weekly, has been supplanted by long-acting PEGylated interferon, which is injected only once weekly.genotype of the infecting virus or the patient's heredity. The treatment reduces viral replication in the liver, thereby reducing the viral load (the amount of virus particles as measured in the blood). and However, some individuals are much more likely to respond than others and this might be because of the

    Prevention

    Several vaccines have been developed by Maurice Hilleman for the prevention of hepatitis B virus infection. These rely on the use of one of the viral envelope proteins (hepatitis B surface antigen or HBsAg). The vaccine was originally prepared from plasma obtained from patients who had long-standing hepatitis B virus infection. However, currently, it is made using a synthetic recombinant DNA technology that does not contain blood products. One cannot be infected with hepatitis B from this vaccine.
    Following vaccination, hepatitis B surface antigen may be detected in serum for several days; this is known as vaccine antigenaemia.The vaccine is administered in either two-, three-, or four-dose schedules into infants and adults, which provides protection for 85–90% of individuals.Protection has been observed to last 12 years in individuals who show adequate initial response to the primary course of vaccinations, and that immunity is predicted to last at least 25 years.
    Unlike hepatitis A, hepatitis B does not generally spread through water and food. Instead, it is transmitted through body fluids; prevention is thus the avoidance of such transmission: unprotected sexual contact, blood transfusions, re-use of contaminated needles and syringes, and vertical transmission during child birth. Infants may be vaccinated at birth

    Diabetes / പ്രമേഹം

    Alliance Medical Foundation Liver and Pancreatic Charitable Trust.
    ( Govt of India Reg )
     
    We are the only National charity that offers Free Medical Treatment support
    and advice for patients with all forms of Liver & Pancreatic Diseases.
    The kindness of supporters like yourself, enables us
    to help people with liver & pancreatic disease.

                     About The Charity Visit : www.amftrust.com

                                                             

    ശരീരപ്രവര്ത്തനത്തിന് ആവശ്യമായ ഊര്ജം ലഭിക്കുന്നത് നാം കഴിക്കുന്ന ആഹാരത്തിലെ അന്നജത്തില് നിന്നാണ്. ഭക്ഷണം ദഹിക്കുന്നതോടെ അന്നജം ഗ്ലൂക്കോസായി മാറി രക്തത്തില് കലരുന്നു. രക്തത്തില് കലര്ന്ന ഗ്ലൂക്കോസിനെ ശരീരകലകളുടെ പ്രവര്ത്തനത്തിനുപയുക്തമായ വിധത്തില് കലകളിലേക്കെത്തിക്കണമെങ്കില് ഇന്സുലിന് എന്ന ഹോര്മോണിന്റെ സഹായം കൂടിയേ തീരൂ. ഇന്സുലിന് ഹോര്മോണ് അളവിലോ ഗുണത്തിലോ കുറവായാല് ശരീരകലകളിലേക്കുള്ള ഗ്ലൂക്കോസിന്റെ ആഗിരണം കുറയുന്നു. ഇത് രക്തത്തില് ഗ്ലൂക്കോസിന്റെ നില കൂടാന് കാരണമാകും. രക്തഗ്ലൂക്കോസിന്റെ അളവ് ഒരുപരിധിയിലധികമായാല് മൂത്രത്തില് ഗ്ലൂക്കോസ് കണ്ടുതുടങ്ങും. രോഗാവസ്ഥയാണ് പ്രമേഹം.

     Diabetes mellitus, often simply referred to as diabetes—is a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the body does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced. This high blood sugar produces the classical symptoms of polyuriapolydipsia (increased thirst) and polyphagia (increased hunger). (frequent urination), 


    പ്രമേഹം എത്ര തരം ഉണ്ട്?
    പ്രധാനമായും രണ്ട് തരം പ്രമേഹമാണ് ഉള്ളത്. ടൈപ്പ് ഒന്ന് എന്ന് പറയുന്നത് ഇന്‍സുലിന്‍ ഉല്പാദനത്തിലുണ്ടാവുന്ന കുറവ് കൊണ്ട് ഉണ്ടാവുന്നതാണ്. ടൈപ്പ് രണ്ട് പ്രമേഹം എന്നത് ഇന്‍സുലിന്‍ വേണ്ടവണ്ണം ശരീരത്തില്‍ പ്രവര്‍ത്തിയ്ക്കാത്തതുകൊണ്ട് ഉണ്ടാവുന്നതാണ്. പാന്‍ക്രിയാസ് വേണ്ടത്ര ഇന്‍സുലിന്‍ ഉല്പാദിപ്പിയ്ക്കാതിരിയ്ക്കലാണ് ടൈപ്പ് ഒണ്‍ പ്രമേഹത്തിന് കാരണം.

    എന്നാല്‍ ടൈപ്പ് രണ്ട് പ്രമേഹം വ്യത്യസ്ഥമാണ്. പാന്‍ക്രിയാസ് വേണ്ട ഇന്‍സുലിന്‍ ഉല്പാദിപ്പിയ്ക്കുന്നുണ്ട്. പക്ഷേ ഇത് വേണ്ട വണ്ണം ശരീരം ഉപയോഗിയ്ക്കുന്നില്ല. ഇത് ശരീരത്തിന്റെ ഒരു അവസ്ഥയാണ്.

    ചില സ്ത്രീകള്‍ക്ക് ഗര്‍ഭകാലത്ത് പ്രമേഹം കാണാറുണ്ട്. ഇതിനെ ജെസ്റ്റേഷണല്‍ പ്രമേഹം എന്നാണ് പറയാറുള്ളത്. ശക്തിയേറിയ സ്റ്റെറോയിഡുകളും മറ്റും ഉപയോഗിയ്ക്കുന്നത് പാന്‍ക്രിയാസിന്റെ വീക്കത്തിന് കാരണമാവും. ഇതും പ്രമേഹത്തിന് വഴി തെളിയ്ക്കും. ഇതിനെ സെക്കന്ററി ഡയബെറ്റിസ് എന്നാണ് വിളിയ്ക്കുന്നത്.


    നിങ്ങള്‍ പ്രമേഹ രോഗിയാണെന്ന് അറിഞ്ഞാല്‍ എന്ത് ചെയ്യണം?

    നിങ്ങളുടെ രക്തത്തിലെ പഞ്ചസാരയുടെ അളവ് കൂടുതലാണെന്ന് പരിശോധനയില്‍ കണ്ടാല്‍ വീണ്ടും മറ്റൊരു ലാബില്‍ പരിശോധിച്ച് അത് ശരിയാണോ എന്ന് കണ്ടെത്തുകയാണ് ആദ്യം ചെയ്യേണ്ടത്. രണ്ടാമത്തെ പരിശോധനയിലും ഇത് ശരിയാണെന്ന് കണ്ടാല്‍ രോഗം നിങ്ങള്‍ക്ക് ഉണ്ടെന്ന കാര്യം സ്വയം അംഗീകരിയ്ക്കുകയാണ് വേണ്ടത്. ഈ മാനസികാവസ്ഥയിലേയ്ക്ക് എത്തുക അത്ര എളുപ്പമല്ല. പക്ഷേ വേറെ വഴിയില്ലെന്ന് ഓര്‍ക്കുക.

    പരിശോധനാ ഫലത്തെ അവഗണിയ്ക്കാതിരിയ്ക്കുക. പ്രമേഹം എന്താണെന്നും എന്താണ് പ്രമേഹ രോഗികള്‍ ചെയ്യേണ്ടതെന്നും അറിയാനായി ശ്രമിയ്ക്കുക. ഈ ആധുനിക യുഗത്തില്‍ ഇത്തരത്തിലുള്ള വിവരങ്ങള്‍ക്ക് ഒരു കുറവുമില്ല. മാസികകള്‍, ഇന്റര്‍നെറ്റ്, ആരോഗ്യ മാസികള്‍ എന്നിവകളിലൊക്കെ ഇത് സംബന്ധിച്ച വിവരങ്ങള്‍ ഉണ്ടാവും. പല ആശുപത്രികളും പ്രമേഹത്തെക്കുറിച്ച് വിവരങ്ങള്‍ നല്‍കുന്ന പരിശീലന പരിപാടികളും സംഘടിപ്പിയ്ക്കുന്നുണ്ടാവും.

    പ്രമേഹത്തെക്കുറിച്ചുള്ള നല്ല കാര്യം എന്താണ്?

    തുടക്കത്തിലേ കണ്ടെത്തി വേണ്ടവണ്ണം ശ്രദ്ധയോടെയുള്ള ജീവിതചര്യ സ്വീകരിച്ചാല്‍ പ്രമേഹം കൊണ്ട് ഉണ്ടാകാവുന്ന ദോഷ ഫലങ്ങള്‍ വളരെക്കാലത്തേയ്ക്ക് ഉണ്ടാകാതിരിയ്ക്കാനെങ്കിലും ശ്രദ്ധിയ്ക്കാന്‍ കഴിയും. ഇത് ആര്‍ക്കും ചെയ്യാവുന്നതേയുള്ളു. എന്നാല്‍ മറ്റൊരു ചീത്തക്കാര്യവുമുണ്ട്. പ്രമേഹം പിടിപെട്ടാല്‍ അത് പൂര്‍ണമായും മാറ്റുക സാദ്ധ്യമല്ലെന്നതാണത്.

    'ചികിത്സിച്ച് ഭേദമാക്കുക' എന്നത് പ്രമേഹത്തിന്റെ കാര്യത്തില്‍ അപ്രായോഗികമാണ്.

    കാലം കഴിയുമ്പോള്‍ പ്രമേഹം കൊണ്ടുള്ള പ്രശ്നങ്ങള്‍ കൂടി കൂടി വരും. ഇത് നിങ്ങളുടെ കുഴപ്പമല്ല. മറിച്ച് പ്രമേഹത്തിന്റെ സ്വഭാവമാണ്. തുടക്കത്തില്‍ ആഹാരം ക്രമീകരിയ്ക്കുന്നതിലൂടെ തന്നെ പ്രമേഹത്തെ നിയന്ത്രിയ്ക്കാനായേയ്ക്കും. തുടര്‍ന്ന് അത് സാധ്യമല്ലാതെ വരുമ്പോള്‍ ഗുളികകള്‍ കഴിയ്ക്കേണ്ടി വരും. വീണ്ടും കാലം ചെല്ലുമ്പോള്‍ ഗുളികകള്‍ കൊണ്ട് മാത്രം പ്രയോജനം ഇല്ലാത്ത അവസ്ഥ സംജാതമാവും. ഈ അവസ്ഥ എത്തിക്കഴിഞ്ഞാല്‍ ഇന്‍സുലിന്‍ കുത്തിവയ്ക്കുക മാത്രമേ നിവൃത്തിയുള്ളു. തുടക്കം മുതല്‍ ഈ അവസ്ഥ വരെ എത്തുന്ന കാലം പല വ്യക്തികളിലും പലതായിരിയ്ക്കും. വേണ്ടത്ര ശ്രദ്ധയില്ലാത്ത ജീവിതമാണെങ്കില്‍ വളരെ കുറഞ്ഞ വര്‍ഷം കൊണ്ട് തന്നെ ഈ അവസ്ഥയിലെത്തിയെന്നും വരാം.


    നിങ്ങള്‍ പ്രമേഹത്തെ നിയന്ത്രിയ്ക്കൂ, മറിച്ചാവരുത്.


    പ്രമേഹത്തെ പ്രതിരോധിയ്ക്കാനാവുമോ?
     
    നിങ്ങളുടെ കുടുംബത്തിലുള്ളവര്‍ക്ക് പ്രമേഹം വരുന്ന ശരീര സ്വഭാവം ഉണ്ടെങ്കില്‍ നിങ്ങള്‍ക്ക് ഒന്നും ചെയ്യാനാവില്ല. പ്രമേഹത്തിന് ചേര്‍ന്ന ഭക്ഷണം കഴിയ്ക്കുകയാണ് നിങ്ങള്‍ ചേയ്യേണ്ടത്. പഴങ്ങളും പച്ചക്കറിയും നിങ്ങളുടെ ഭക്ഷണത്തില്‍ കൂടുതല്‍ ഉള്‍പ്പെടുത്തുക, ഫാസ്റ്റ് ഫുഡ് തീര്‍ത്തും ഉപേക്ഷിയ്ക്കുക, ഇതൊക്കെ ആണ് ആദ്യ പാഠങ്ങള്‍. ഇതിനൊപ്പം ആരോഗ്യകരമായ ജീവിത രീതി സ്വീകരിയ്ക്കണം. വേണ്ടവണ്ണം വ്യായാമം ചെയ്യുക, പുകവലിയ്ക്കാതിരിയ്ക്കുക, കുറഞ്ഞ അളവില്‍ മാത്രം മദ്യം ഉപയോഗിയ്ക്കുക തുടങ്ങിയവയൊക്കെ നല്ല ജീവിത രീതിയില്‍ ഉള്‍പ്പെടുത്താം. ശരീരത്തിന്റെ ഭാരം അധികം കൂടാതെ നോക്കേണ്ടതും ആവശ്യമാണ്.

    പ്രമേഹാവസ്ഥയിലെത്താന്‍ തുടങ്ങുന്നതിന് തൊട്ട് മുമ്പ് അതിനെ ചെറുക്കാനായി ചില മരുന്നുകള്‍ ഇപ്പോള്‍ ഉപയോഗിച്ചുവരുന്നുണ്ട്.



    What are the types of Diabetes?
    There are two main types of Diabetes: type 1 or Insulin deficient and type 2 or Insulin resistant or adult onset Diabetes. In type 1 Diabetes pancreas does not produce Insulin and you cannot survive without Insulin. In type 2 Diabetes, pancreas does produce Insulin but it is insufficient and/or less effective. Diabetes can manifest for the first time in pregnancy, called gestational Diabetes. Certain medications like steroids in high doses can cause diabetes as chronic pancreatitis – they are called secondary diabetes.

    What should I do when I am told, “you have Diabetes"?
    First step when you see your blood sugar result is high is to recheck to confirm the diagnosis. The next and most important, although most difficult, step is to accept the diagnosis. Do not try to run away from the diagnosis, try to know the facts about Diabetes. Several sources of information are available, like health magazines, Internet, various health related journals, education programmes, etc.

    Is there any good news about Diabetes?
    The good news is that with proper care you can avoid or at least postpone the deadly complications of Diabetes. The bad news is that Diabetes is not going to go away.

    At present the word "cure" is not there for Diabetes.

    Also it is worth knowing that Diabetes worsens over time, this is not your fault, and this is the nature of Diabetes. So, initially you may be well controlled with diet, later you will require tablets and a time in future will come when only tablets are not going to do the job, you will need Insulin. The time to reach that stage depends and varies from one person to other. If not taken care properly, this time can be as less as few years.

    Control your Diabetes, do not allow Diabetes to control you.

    Can we prevent Diabetes?
    If you have genetic risk for developing diabetes because of family history, you cannot do anything about that. Things you can do are healthy eating (i.e., eating vegetables and fruits, avoiding fast food), healthy life-style (regular exercise, avoidance of smoking, moderation of alcohol, etc) and keeping your weight in accordance to your height. Certain medicines are being used recently for preventing Diabetes in people who have borderline Diabetes

    Monday, November 15, 2010

    Fatty Liver / കരളിലെ കൊഴുപ്പ് അവഗണിക്കേണ്ട

    Alliance Medical Foundation Liver and Pancreatic Charitable Trust.
    ( Govt of India Reg )
    We are the only National charity that offers Free Medical Treatment support
    and advice for patients with all forms of Liver & Pancreatic Diseases.
    The kindness of supporters like yourself, enables us
    to help people with liver & pancreatic disease.

                    About The Charity Visit : www.amftrust.com


               കരളിലെ കൊഴുപ്പ് അവഗണിക്കേണ്ട



    കരള് രോഗം വരില്ലെന്നത് മദ്യപിക്കാത്തവരുടെ ഒരു സ്വകാര്യ അഹങ്കാരമാണ്. മദ്യപരില് കരള്രോഗ സാധ്യത ഏറെയാണെന്നത് വസ്തുതയാണെങ്കിലും മദ്യം കഴിക്കാത്തവര്ക്കും കരളില് കൊഴുപ്പടിയും. വൈദ്യശാസ്ത്രം ഇതിനു നല്കിയ പേരാണ് മദ്യപാനം മൂലമല്ലാത്ത കരളിലെ കൊഴുപ്പടിയല്‍(നോണ് ആല്ക്കഹോളിക് ഫാറ്റി ലിവര് ഡിസീസ്-NAFLD). സാരമല്ലാത്ത കരളിലെ കൊഴുപ്പടിയല്‍ (Steatosis) മുതല് ഗുരുതരമായ കരള് രോഗങ്ങള്‍ (steatohepatitis,cirrhosis) വരെയുളള രോഗാവസ്ഥവരെ ഇതില്പെടുന്നു. കരളിലെകോശങ്ങളില് കൊഴുപ്പടിയുന്നതാണ് അവസ്ഥയിലേക്ക് നയിക്കുന്നത്.

    സ്റ്റീറ്റോഹെപ്പറ്റൈറ്റിസ്
    ശരീരത്തിലടിയുന്ന കൊഴുപ്പില് നിന്ന് അല്പം വ്യത്യസ്തമാണ് കരളിലടിയുന്ന കൊഴുപ്പ്. സാധാരണനിലയില് കരളിലെ കൊഴുപ്പടിയല് മിക്കവരിലും രോഗാവസ്ഥ സൃഷ്ടിക്കാറില്ല. എന്നാല് ഇത്തരക്കാരില് ചെറിയൊരു വിഭാഗത്തിന് പിന്നീട് സ്റ്റീറ്റോഹെപ്പറ്റൈറ്റിസ് പിടിപെടുന്നതായി കണ്ടുവരുന്നു.കൊഴുപ്പ് കരളിനെ രോഗാതുരമാക്കുകയും ആരോഗ്യമുള്ള കരള്കോശങ്ങളെ നശിപ്പിക്കുകയും ചെയ്യുന്നതാണ് പരിണിതഫലം. കരളിലെ മാറ്റം ഒരു വിദഗ്ധപരിശോധനയിലൂടെയല്ലാതെ കണ്ടെത്താനാവില്ലെന്നതാണ് ശ്രദ്ധിക്കേണ്ട കാര്യം.

    തുടക്കത്തില് രോഗലക്ഷണങ്ങള് കണ്ടെന്നുവരില്ലെങ്കിലും ലിവര് സീറോസിസ് എന്ന രോഗാവസ്ഥയിലെത്തിയാല് കടുത്തക്ഷീണവും ഭാരം നഷ്ടപ്പെടലും അടിവയറിന് മുകളില് വലതുവശത്ത് വേദനയും അനുഭവപ്പെടും. സ്റ്റീറ്റോഹെപ്പറ്റൈറ്റിസ് അവസ്ഥ 8-15 ശതമാനം പേരില് മാത്രമേ ലിവര് സീറോസിസായി പരിണമിക്കാറുള്ളൂവെന്ന് വിദഗ്ധര് സാക്ഷ്യപ്പെടുത്തുന്നു. പൊണ്ണത്തടിമൂലമുണ്ടാകുന്ന ഇന്സുലിന് പ്രതിരോധം ഇത്തരം രോഗാവസ്ഥയിലേക്കെത്താന് പ്രധാനകാരണമാണ്. ബോഡിമാസ് ഇന്ഡക്സ്(കിലോഗ്രാമിലുള്ള തൂക്കത്തെ ഉയരത്തിന്റെ ഇരട്ടികൊണ്ട് ഹരിച്ചുകിട്ടുന്ന സംഖ്യ)25നും 30നുമിടയില് നിലനിര്ത്താത്തവര്ക്ക് രോഗസാധ്യത കൂടുന്നതായി കണ്ടെത്തിയിട്ടുണ്ട്. ബോഡിമാസ് ഇന്ഡക്സ് 30-35 ഉള്ളവരില് രോഗസാധ്യത നാലിരട്ടിയും 40നുമുകളിലുള്ളവരില് ആറിരട്ടിയും രോഗസാധ്യതയുണ്ടാകാമെന്ന് വിദഗ്ധര് പറയുന്നു. കൊളസ്ട്രോളും പ്രമേഹവും രോഗകാരണമായി പറയുന്നുണ്ടെങ്കിലും എല്ലാവരിലും ഇത് ശരിയായിക്കൊള്ളണമെന്നുമില്ല.

    പ്രതിരോധം
    രോഗം പൂര്ണമായി ഭേദമാക്കാന് മരുന്നുകള് ഇതുവരെ നിലവിലില്ലാത്തതിനാല് ശരിയായ ജീവിതചര്യയാണ് പ്രധാനം.ചിട്ടയായ വ്യായാമം, ആരോഗ്യകരമായ ഭക്ഷണശീലം, മദ്യപാനം ഒഴിവാക്കല്‍ (അല്പം കഴിക്കുന്നവരാണെങ്കിലും),അമിതവണ്ണം കുറയ്ക്കുക ഇവയാണ് രോഗം വരാതിരിക്കാനും വന്നുകഴിഞ്ഞാല് നിയന്ത്രിക്കാനുമുള്ള പ്രധാനവഴികള്‍. അനാവശ്യമായ മരുന്നുകള് ഒഴിവാക്കണമെന്നും വിദഗ്ധര് നിര്ദേശിക്കാറുണ്ട്. എന്നാല് രോഗാവസ്ഥയ്ക്കനുസരിച്ച് ഡോക്ടര്മാര് നിര്ദേശിക്കുന്ന മരുന്നുകള് അതില്പെടില്ല. പ്രമേഹരോഗികളില് രോഗം നിയന്ത്രിച്ചുനിര്ത്തുകയും കൊളസ്ട്രോളുള്ളവര് അത് നിയന്ത്രിക്കേണ്ടതും പ്രധാനമാണ്.





     Fatty Liver

    Fatty Liver is the accumulation of fat in liver cells. It is also called steatosis.

    Description of Fatty Liver

    Possible explanations of fatty liver  include the transfer of fat from other parts of the body or an increase in the extraction of fat presented to the liver from the intestine. Other explanations are that the liver reduces the rate it breaks down and removes fat. Eating fatty foods does not by itself produce a fatty liver.

    Causes and Risk Factors of Fatty Liver

    Alcohol, Obesity, starvation, Diabetes mellitus, corticosteroids, poisons (carbon tetrachloride and yellow phosphorus), Cushing's syndrome, and hyperlipidemia are some causes of fatty liver. Microvesicular fatty liver may be caused by valproic acid toxicity and high-dose tetracycline or during pregnancy.

    Symptoms of Fatty Liver

    Patients are often asymptomatic.

    Diagnosis of Fatty Liver

    The patient may have an enlarged liver or minor elevation of liver enzyme tests. Several studies show that fatty liver is one of the most common causes of isolated minor elevation of liver enzymes found in routine blood screening.
    Images of the liver obtained by an ultrasound test, CT (computed tomography) scan, or MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) may suggest the presence of a fatty liver. To be certain whether a patient has fatty liver requires a liver biopsy, in which a small sample of liver tissue is obtained through the skin and analyzed under the microscope.

    Treatment of Fatty Liver

    The treatment of fatty liver is related to the cause. It is important to remember that simple fatty liver may not require treatment. The benefit of weight loss, dietary fat restriction, and exercise in obese patients is inconsistent.
    Reducing or eliminating alcohol use can improve fatty liver due to alcohol toxicity. Controlling blood sugar may reduce the severity of fatty liver in patients with diabetes. Ursodeoxycholic acid may improve liver function test results, but its effect on improving the underlying liver abnormality is unclear.